The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates
about 80% of the US food supply. The administration is
likewise in charge of reviewing
not only the ingredients of the food product but the packaging as well. There exist
ingredients that do not change the food product’s taste or
makeup and exist because they affect
components of the product such as
shelf preservation, color and aroma.
These added ingredients are classified Generally
Recognized As Safe (GRAS). Industrial
gases that are utilized in the food industry for Modified
Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) and refrigeration are
classified as such.
In 1958 Congress implemented the Food
Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. One of the items that the amendment covered
was the definition of a Food Additive which was:
“Any substance the intended use for which results or may reasonably be
expected to result, directly or indirectly, in its becoming a component or
otherwise affecting the component of food.”
Not included are like gas mixtures which are not considered additives and are
In the late 60’s cyclamate salts, which were utilized
to artificially sweeten soft
drinks and considered GRAS, began to be reconsidered. The conclusion prompted
then President Nixon to order the FDA to reconsider all substances that fit the GRAS classification. In 1997, the FDA claimed that they did not have adequate resources to fulfill all the demands
that they were receiving for substances to be classified.
Since then, the materials that were originally considered
GRAS were upholding their classification and can
be found in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR). All substances after 1997 requesting
classification are granted a GRAS Notice which is concluded
by individual experts outside the
government. Simply put, a GRAS classification prior to 1997 was sanctioned by the FDA and after
1997 by accord of recognized experts then briefly
reviewed by the FDA.
How does this apply
to gases used in MAP?
The most important point to be remembered is that there is no federal certification
given to industrial gases employed
for food processing be it freezing, formulation or packaging. The gases that are considered GRAS are carbon dioxide, helium, nitrogen, nitrous
oxide and propane. The Code of Federal
Regulations section 184.1 explains each of these gases,
with respect to suitability, with the same phrasing. This, in part, is:
ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use.
accordance with 184.1--- (last three numbers identify the gas), the ingredient is used in food with no
limitations other than current good manufacturing practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as
generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based
upon the following current good manufacturing conditions of use:
ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing
sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this
section do not exist or have been waived.”
As mentioned, gas suppliers are
only responsible for the purity of the gas
product and the other sanctions (i.e. … proper manufacturing practices…) are goverened
by the food processor or the gas supplier’s customer.
Additionally, hydrogen, carbon
monoxide and argon were identified as ingredients
after 1997 and are not listed in 21 CFR.
Since then, they
been given a GRAS Notice under the heading of “No Questions” which insinuates
that the FDA had no questions as to the accuracy of
the outside expert’s consensus.
The crucial point to take
away is that the any gases with
the label “Food Grade” have been certified in house by the manufacturer instead of by the FDA.
The certification is by purity determined by proper
handling and manufacturing of the final product until it reaches its final
package (cylinders, micro-bulk vessels, transports and large cryogenic
vessels). Food processors have learned to keep an eye out
for food grade products and like to see clean packages
with clear labels. So having predetermined
“food grade” cylinders and/or tanks is necessary
to succeed in this market as is evidenced
by the successful companies naming and trademarking their
respective lines of food grade gases.
information on food grade gases and MAP applications are available through PurityPlus. If you’re interested in
purchasing food grade gases
or other specialty gases for various industries in Albany, contact
Noble Gas Solutions at (518) 465-5229 or contact us via email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Written by John Segura.
John Segura is a licensed Professional Engineer and a well-rounded
executive in the industrial gas industry.
He has 30+ years of experience in areas involving sales,
marketing, and operations both domestically and internationally. He has been a leader to teams of engineers and technicians as an R & D manager for major gas
companies. His work eventually
led him to be the leader of the marketing
efforts of technology worldwide for industrial gas suppliers. He presently consults to
the industry on the business specializing in operations, applications and